Hallux Abductovalgus

What Is A Bunion?

A bunion occurs when the big toe begins to deviate towards the second toe. The biggest misconception is that bunions occur from an overgrowth of bone. While this may be true in very few people, the bunion really represents a dislocation or subluxation of the big toe joint and it bulges against the skin. This bony prominence is what is commonly called a bunion. Sometimes the bunion area may become irritated, red and/or callused.

What Causes A Bunion?

Probably the most likely reasons are heredity and wearing wrong shoe gears for you to develop a bunion. It takes years for Bunions to occur. Tight and/or pointy shoes that crowd the toes may result in a bunion. High heels are also suggested to cause bunions as well.

Plantar Fasciitis

What is plantar fasciitis?

Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. The plantar fascia is a ligament attached to the heel bone (calcaneus) that divides and fans out to attach at the base of the toes (metatarsals) It supports the arch of your foot. If you strain your plantar fascia, it gets weak, swollen, and irritated (inflamed). Then your heel or the bottom of your foot hurts when you stand or walk. Plantar fasciitis is common in middle-aged people. It also occurs in younger people who are on their feet a lot, like athletes or soldiers. It can happen in one foot or both feet.

What causes plantar fasciitis?

Plantar fasciitis is caused by straining the ligament that supports your arch. Repeated strain can cause tiny tears in the ligament. These can lead to pain and swelling. This is more likely to happen if:

  • Feet roll inward too much when you walk (excessive pronation ).
  • High arches or flat feet.
  • Walk, stand, or run for long periods of time, especially on hard surfaces.
  •  overweight
  • Ill fitting shoes or are worn out. You have tight achilles tendons or calf muscles

Hammer toe


are an arthritic condition of the feet.   Shoes that are too narrow or too shallow will contribute to the formation of this deformity. What most people do not know is that the foot structure will also contribute to hammertoe formation. People with very high arches will tend to develop hammertoes because the toes begin to ride up on the metatarsal bones which are the bones just behind the toes. Additionally, people whose feet are very flat will also tend to develop hammertoes because of a weakness that develops in the foot musculature from the feet constantly flattening out when they walk. Once the toes become crooked, they become difficult to fit in conventional shoes.


Calluses and corns are caused by repeated pressure or friction on an area of skin. The pressure causes the skin to die and form a hard, protective surface. A soft corn is formed in the same way, except that when sweat is trapped where the corn develops, the hard core softens. This typically occurs between toes.

Heel spur is characterized by a sharp pain under the heel when getting out of bed in the morning or getting up after sitting for a period of time. Walking around for a while often helps reduce the pain, turning it into a dull ache. However, sports, running or walking long distance makes the condition worse. In some cases swelling around the heel maybe present.

What are the main causes?

The cause of heel spurs is excessive strain placed on the plantar fascia over a long period of time, as a result of different factors. These factors include incorrect gait, being overweight, ageing or being in a job that requires a lot of standing on hard floors.  It is usually a combination of any of these factors that will bring on the development of heel spurs.